Memorandum

Jaume Vall

Anglès. Vocabulari nivell Intermediate. 2.000 paraules més usuals.

INTERMEDIATE.
2.000 most common words in English.
Això és un diccionari incomplet. Hem intentat relacionar el vocabulari suficient d’anglès per tenir una conversa, una lectura de nivell mitjà/avançat. Aproximadament 2.500 entrades. En principi, el que es necessita per entendre i fer-se entendre, excloent phrasal verbs, idioms, slang. Considerem que hi ha seleccionat l’equivalent a un 95% aproximat del total de paraules més utilitzades en anglès. I el 5% restant? Dues explicacions: La primera és que, de ben segur, hi ha oblits en la llista, o bé hi ha apreciacions equivocades sobre si algun terme està o no entre “els més utilitzats”. La segona explicació és que es tracta d’un vocabulari general. Particularment, cada usuari, en funció dels seus interessos, siguin professionals o de lleure, pot considerar que una sèrie de paraules que necessita, no estan representades. Sigui qualsevol dels casos, convidem a que cada lector acabi de completar aquest 5% de mots, i que el diccionari acabi sent fet a mida de cadascú. Si calculem 5% sobre 2.500 ítems totals, ens movem sobre una mica més d’un centenar de paraules que lliurement es poden afegir. Hi ha espai per fer-ho.
La manera d’utilitzar aquest recull és doble. D’una banda, es pot agafar un lletra, per exemple la F, i anar a buscar entre les paraules que hi comencen, la que no coneixem. Per exemple, imaginem que llegim : Face, fact, fail, fair, i arribem a faith, que no entenem què vol dir. Ens aturem aquí, busquem el significat de faith en un diccionari convencional, i seguidament, utilitzem la paraula tot construint una frase amb aquest vocable, per repetir-nos visualment la nova adquisició, tot consolidant que es mantingui més fàcilment a la nostra memòria.
D’altra banda, també es pot tenir com a diccionari de consulta. Estem llegint un text, veient una pel•lícula, sentint una cançó. De repent ens trobem amb una paraula nova, desconeguda, per exemple dig. Anem al grup sota l’epígraf D comprovar si és a la llista. Sí, per tant tenim la confirmació que dig és un mot que val la pena retenir, perquè es troba entre els 2.500 vocables anglesos més utilitzats. Imaginem que no, que no és a la llista. Poden haver passat dues coses. Una, que sigui un error, un oblit, i que realment cal que el mot s’incorpori a la llista. (Hem deixat suficient espai fer apuntar-lo manualment). Dues, que el mot que hem sentit o llegit, no sigui habitual, i potser no calgui incorporar-lo de moment en el nostre racó de memòria, perquè és esporàdic i segurament no ens el trobarem massa vegades. Finalment, aquest diccionari incorpora dos grups de paraules dintre del conjunt global de cada lletra. La raó és que el grup que trobem primer, és bàsicament el que ja tenim de nivells anteriors. La novetat rau en el segon, que és l’específic d’aquest nivell.
Després del darrer epígraf, la lletra Z, hi ha un annex on es complementa aquesta llista general composta de noms, verbs, adjectius i adverbis, -els maons d’una llengua- amb una sèrie d’elements complementaris d’un idioma -pronoms, preposicions, conjuncions- que serveixen per cimentar els elements bàsics. Així mateix hi ha una agrupació de vocabulari temàtic divers.
Esperem que tot plegat serveixi per enriquir el nostre vocabulari d’anglès. La finalitat, fer-ne un ús actiu de manera fàcil, progressiva, constant.

! Avís: El signe * vol dir que hi ha una paraula d’arrel comú tant o més usual que la pròpia llistada. Per exemple blend*, significa que a part de to blend : barrejar, mesclar, hi ha blender: batedora, liqüadora.
El símbol (x2) vol dir que el mot és polisèmic, que té un altre significat. Per exemble bark: pot ser 1: bordar, el so que fan els gossos, 2: escorça, dels arbres.
El subratllat _ en alguna paraula del primer grup vol dir que l’element en qüestió no sortia en el recull immediatament anterior, en aquest cas, en el nivell Pre-Intermediate amb les 1.200 paraules més usuals. Per exemple bug, apareix dins del primer grup a Intermediate, tot substituint brim, que canvia de grup i passa al segon de mots, en cursiva. Es tracta de les excepcions. La immensa majoria de paraules que defineixen el nivell superior (Intermediate – 2.000) són les cursives i subratllades del segon grup, que senzillament s’afegeix a les del primer grup Pre-Intermediate – 1.200), publicades prèviament.

Comencem:

 

A
Abbey, able, about, above, abroad, accept, ace, ache, account, accuracy, accuse, acquaintance, acquit, add, address, admit, advice, afford, afraid, after, again, against, age, ago, agree, aid, aim(x2), air, alibi, alive, all, alone, allow, almond, almost, already, also, although, always, among, amount, anger, ankle, annoy, another, answer, ant, anthem, anyway, ape, apologize, appeal, apple, apricot, apron, argue, arm, around, arrange, arrive, arrow, ash, ask, attorney, aunt, avoid, away, aware, awe, awful, axe, aware, awful, 60,

+
To achieve, acumen, advertisement, to advise, allege, alley, altogether, to appear, appetizers, appointment, to apply, approach, to arise, army, to assess, asset, assignment, to astonish, attempt, attitude, auction, audition, available, average, award, awkward, 25,

 

B
Back, bad, bag, bake, ball, bark(x2), barley, basket, bath, battle, bay, be, beach, bear(X2), beard, beast, beat, beauty, because, become, bed, bee, beer, before, begin, behind, believe, bell, below, belt, berry, between, beyond, big, bike, bill, bird, birth, bishop, bitter, black, blame, block, blond, blood, blow, blue, blush, boast, boat, body, bone, book, boot, born, borrow, boss, both, bottle, bottom, bounce, boundary, bow, bowl, box, boy, brain, bread, break, breakfast, breast, breathe, brick, bride, bridge, bring, brother, brown, bug, build, bull, bunch, bundle, burn, business, butter, buy, bye 85

+
Badger, bail, balance, bald, ban, to banish, bandage, banner, bargain, barn, basement, bass, to batter, bead, beak, beam, beaver, beetroot, belief, beverages, bid, bigotry, blade, blank, blast, to bleed, to blend*, to bless, blister, blossom, breeze, bribe, brim, brink, broad, brooch, brook, broom, browse, bruise, buck, bulk, bullet, burglar, burden, 45

 

C
Cake, call, candle, car, card, care, carpet, carrot, carry, cartoon, case(X2), cash, castle, cat, celery, cell(phone), chain, chair, chance, change, cheap, cheek, cheese, cheetah, cherry, chess, chest, chicken, child, children, chin, choose, church, circle, citizen, city, class, clean, clear, clever, clock, close, clothes, cloud, coast, coat, cod, coin, cold, comb, come, complain, computer, congratulations, cook, cool, corn, corner, cost, cotton, council, count, country, couple, cow, crash, crazy, crew, cross, crowd, crumb, cry, cub, cup, cut , 75

+
Cab, cabbage, calf(x2), cap, carnation, career, carriage, to carve, cashew, caterpillar, cattle, cause, to cease, ceiling, century, chalk, character, chariot, charm, chart, to cherish, to chew, chill, chime, choir, to choke, to chop, chores, cinder, clam, clash, clay, clerk, cliff, cling, cloak, clove(x2), clue, cluster, clutch, coach(x2), coal, coffin, coin, to collide, to commit, to commute, company, conceal, concern, cone, contempt, contest, to convey*, to cope, copper, court, couch, cough, county, cover(x2), crack, cradle, cramp, crane, to crave, crawl, cricket, crimson, crop, crow, crown, crumble, crush, curfew, currency, curse, curtain, cushion, customer, cute, 80,

 

D
Dairy, daisy, damage, dance, danger, dare, dark, date(x2), daughter, dawn, day, deal, dear, death*, decrease, deep, deer, degree, dessert, desk, dessert, develop, devil, die, difficult, dig, dinner, dirt*, disagree, disappoint, dish, dive, do, dog, doll, door, dot, dove, down, draw(X2), drawer, dream, dress, drink, drive, drop(X2), drug, duck, during, dust, 50

+
Dagger, dam, damage, damp, dart, dash, to dazzle, decay, to deceive, decree, deed, default, defeat, delay, delight, to deliver, den, to deny, debt , to deprive, to deserve, to despise, device, dial, dice, to diminish, dime, disease, disgrace, disguise, to dismantle, to dismiss, display, ditch, dock, dodge, dome, donkey, draft, to drag, to drain, drought, drum, dry, dub, duke, dull, duty, dwarf, dye. 50

 

E

Each, eagle, ear, earn, earth, ease*, eat, edge, egg, either, elbow, elder*, eldest*, end, engine, enjoy, enough, environment, erase, eve, even, evening, ever, every, evil, expect, expensive, explain, eye, eyebrow, eyelash, eyelid, 30

+
Ebony, eel, else to embarrasse, to embed, ember, to embrace, empire, enable, enclosure, endeavour, to endure, to engage, to entail, envelop, envy, esteem, , exit, expel , expense, extent, 20.

 

F

Face, fact, fail, fair(x2), faith, fall, false, family, far, farm, fashion, fast(x2), fat, father, fear, feather, feed, feel, female, fence, few, field, fight, fill, find, fine(x2) finger, finish, fire, fish, fit, fix, flag, flat, flee, fly, floor, flower, fog, follow, food, fool, foot, forbid, force, forest, forget, forgive, fork, form, fox, free*, freeze*, fridge, friend, frighten, frog, front*, fruit, full, fun, 60,

+
Factory, to fade, failure, faint, fake, fancy, fare*, to fasten, faucet, fault, feat, feature, fellow, fern, to fetch, file, fist, fizzy, flaw, flea, fleet, flesh, to float, flock, flood, flour, to flourish, flow, flu, flush, fog, fold, fond, foreign, forever, former, frame, freak, freight, fringe, frost, frown, to fry, fuel, to fulfil, fund, fur, furniture, fuse, fuss, 50

 

G

Game, garden, garlic, gate, get, ghost, gift, girl, give, glad, glass, glasses, glove, go, goal, goat, god, gold, good, grandchildren, granddaughter, grandfather, grandmother, grandparents, grandson, grape, grass, great, greet, green, grey, grind, ground, grow, gun, guy, 35,

+

Gain, to gamble, gap, garment, to gather, gaze, gear, gipsy, glance, glide, glow, glue, goose, gospel, gossip, gown, grab, grant, grasp, grasshopper, grave, to graze, grease, greed, grid, grief* grim, grin, grind, grocery, groom, to guess, guest, guilt, gull, 35

 

 

H

Hair, half, ham, hammer, hand, happen, happiness*, hard, harvest, hat, hate, have, hazelnut, head, health, hear, heart, heat, heaven, heavy, hell, hello, help, here, hide, high, hill, hip, hit, hold, hole, holy, holiday, home, honey, hood, hook, hope, horse, host, hot, hour, house, hug, huge, humble, hunger*, hunt, hurry, hurt, husband, 50

+

Hail, hall, hamper, handful, hankerchief, handle, harbour, hare, harm, harsh, to to hasten, hatchling, haul, to haunt, haven, haze, hawk, hazard, heal, hedge(x2), heel, heir, heist, helmet, hen, herd, heritage, hermit, herring, to hike, hind, hint, to hire, hive, hoard, hollow, horn, hound, to hover, hull, hump, 40

 

I

Ice, idle, igloo, ill, improve, increase, injury, ink, inside, instead, involve, iron, island, item, 14

+

Inception, incumbent, inch, indeed, to inherit, inkling, inquiry, insight, to insulate, intake, to invest, invoice, issue. ivory, ivy, 15.

 

 

J

Jail, jam(x2), jar, jaw, jelly, jewel, job, joke, to join, journey, joy, judge, jug, juice, to jump, just, 16

+

Jab (to) , jackal, jay, jester, joint, jolt, joggle, junk, 5,

 

K

Keen, keep, kernel, key, kick, kid, kidney, kind(x2), king, kill, kiss, kit, kitchen, kite, knee, knife, knock, know*, 15

+
Kerb, kennel, to kidnap, kindle, kink (x2), kitten, knight, knot, knuckle, 5

 

L

Label, lady, lake, lamp, land, large, last(x2), late, laugh, law, lay, lazy, lead(x2), leaf, leak, learn, least, leave, left, leg, lemon, lend, less, let, letter, lettuce, level, lie(x2), life, light, like, line, lion, lip, listen, little, live, liver, lobster, long, look, lose, lot, loud, love, low, luck, luggage, lunch, lung, 50

+
Lack, lace, lad, ladder, ladle, lamb, lame, lane, lap, lash, launch, laundry, lawn, to lay, to leak, to lean, leap, leash, leather, leek, leisure, lens, lentil, levee, lift, lighting, lily, lime (x2), link, litter, lizard, load, loaf, loan, loathe, lobster, lock, lodge, loft, log(x2), loose, loop, loot, loss, lounge, louse, lumber, 30

 

 

M

Mad, magnet, make, mail, main, male, mammal, man, many, marble, market, marry, match(x2), may*(x2), maybe, mayor, meal, mean(x2), meat, meet, melon, melt, mess, middle, midnight, might, milk, mind(x2), mint, mirror, miss, mistake, mix, mobile, money, monkey, month, moon, morning, mother, mountain, mouse, mouth, move, movie, much, murder, mushroom, mussel, must, 50

+
Magpie, maid, major, maple, marrow, mash, mass, mate, matter(x2), maze, meadow, means, memo, to mend, meow, mercy, to merge, mice, might(x2), mild, mile, mill, mince, mink, minor, mist, mitten, mixture, mob, mood, moose, mop, mortgage, moss, mould(x2), moth, to mow, to mumble, mustard, muzzle. 40.

 

N

Nail, naked, name, napkin, narrow, nation, navy, near, nearly, neck, need, needle, neighbour, neither*, nephew, nest, net, never, new, news, next, nice, niece, night, nightmare, nod, noise, noon, nose, nothing, now, number, nun, nurse, nut(X2), 35.

+
Naive, nap, nasty, natter, nimble, nip, nipple, noose, nostril, nude, numb, nurture, 10

 

 

O
Oak, oat, octopus, odd, odyssey, off, offal, office, often, oil, old, omelet, on, once, one, onion, only, open, orange, order, ostrich, other, ought, out, oven, over, owl, own, ox, oyster, 30.

+
Oath, oddity, offal, otter, outrage, owe, 5

 

 

P

Pack, pain, paint, pair, palm, pan, park, parrot, parsley, part, party(x2) past, path, pay, pea, peace, peach, peak, peanut, pear, pearl, peel, pen, pencil, penguin, people*, pepper, pheasant, phone, picture, pie, piece, pig, pigeon, pill, pillow, pine, pineapple, pink, place, plan, plane, play, please, plenty, plum, pocket, point, poison, polite, pool, poor, post, potato, pot*, pound, powder, power, prawn, praise, pray, present(x2), press, pretend, pretty, prevent, price, pride, prince, print, prisoner, private, prize, problem, promise, proof, proud, pull, punish, puppet, purple, purpose, purse, push, put, pawn, 85

+
Pace, (to), pad, paddle, pant, partner, pastry, patch, patrol, pattern, paw, pawn, peasant, pebble, pedestrian, peer, performance, to perish, to pick, pickle, pier, pilgrim, pin, pitch, pity, plague, plaster, plate, platform, pledge, pliers, plot, plough, to plug, to plunge, pod, poise, pole, to polish, pond, poultry, pour, poverty, prattle, to preach, pregnant, prestigious, prey, priest, prize, prompt, proper, property, pros, to provide, pumkin, pulp, punch, pup, purse, puzzle. 60

 

Q

Quality, quarrel, quarter, queen, question, queue, quick, quicksand, quicksilver, quiet, quince, quit, quite, quiz, quote, 15

+
Quagmire, quail, quaint, quay. quid, 5 

 

 

R

Rabbit, raccoon, race(x2), radish, rail, rain*, raise, raw, ray, reach, read, ready, realize, really, reason, recipe, red, refuse, regards, regret, relationship, reliable, remain, remember, remind, remove, renew, report, reply, rescue, research, rest, reward, rib, ribbon, rice, rich, ride, right(x2), ring, rip, rise, river, road, rob, robin, rock, rocket, roll, roof, room, root, rope, rough, round, rug, rule*, run, rub*, rye, 60

+

Rack, rag, raid, raisin, rake, rank, random, range, rattle, raven, razor, rear, receipt, reap, to reckon, reed, reef, reel, rehearsal, relay, release, relief, to relieve, reluctant, to rely, request, reservoir, resort, retail, retreat, retrieve*, revenge, rid(of), riddle, ridge, riot, to rip, roar, roast, rooster, rosemary, row(x2), rubber, rubbish, ruffle, rush , 40

 

S

Sack, sad, safe, sail, salad, salt, same, sand, sausage, save, say, school, scissors, sea, seal(x2), search, season(X2), seat, see, seed, seem, self, sell, send, sentence, set, several, sew, shadow, shake, shame, shape, share(x2), shark, sheep, sheet, shelf, shell, shine, ship, shirt, shoe, shoot, shop, short, shoulder, shout, show, shower, shrimp, shut*, sick, side*, sight*, silk, silver, sin, sing, single, sister, sit, size, skin, skill, skirt, skull, sky, slave, sleep, sleeve, slice, slide, slight, slim, slow, small, smell, smile, smoke, smooth, snail, snake, snore, snow, soap, sock, soft, solve, some, son, song, soon, sorry, soul, sound, soup, souvenir, space, sparrow, speak, speech, speed, spell, spend, spice, spider, sport, spoon, spot, spread, square, squid, squirrel, stain, stair, stand, star, start, state, stay, steal, steel, step, still, sting, stone, stop, storm, store, story, strawberry*, stream, street, strike(x2), sudden*, sugar, suit(x2), sun, surface, surgery, surname, survey, swallow(x2), sweat, sweep, sweet, swim, swing, sword, 150

+

Saddle, sale, sample, savoury, saw, scale, scan, scarce, scare, scarf, scatter, scent, schedule, scold, scoop(x2), scope, score, scramble, scrap, scratch, to scream, screen, screw(x2), script, scroll, seam, seed, seek, settle, sewer, shackle, shallow, shamrock, to shatter, to shave, to shed, shelf, shelter, shelf, shelter, shepherd, shield, shift, shin, shiver, shore, shovel, shrewd, shrine, shrink, shrug, shuttle, shutter, sibling, sieve, sigh, silly, sin, sink(X2), sip, skate, sketch, sickle, site, skirt, slack, slam, slap, slate, sleeve, slender, slice, slide, slight, slim, slip, slippers, sliver, slope, smack, smooth, snack, snail, snap, sneak, sneeze, snore, snorkel, snooze, to soak, solicitor, sore, sorrow, sour, source, spade, spam, span, spare, spark, spear, species, spell(X2), spice, spill, spin, spit, spite, splash, split, spoil, spot, spring(X2) spur, stab, staff, stag, stage, stain, stake, stall, stamp, staple, to stare, to starve, steak, steam, steel, stem, stew, steward, stick, stiff, stink, stir, stock, stool, store, stork, stout, stove, straight, strand, strange, stream, strengthen, strike(x2), string, strip, stripe, struggle, stuff, submit, succeed, suitable, suitcase, supply, surround, survey, swallow(x2), swarm, swan, swear, sweep, swift, swing, to switch, sword, 120

 

T

Table, tag, tail, tailor, take, tale, tall, talk, tangerine, tape, target, tap, taste, tax, tea, teach, tear(x2), tell, team, thank, thick, thigh, thief, thin, thing, think, thirst*, thought, throat, throne, throw, thumb, thunder, thyme, tide, tie, tiger, timber, time, tip, toast(x2), today, toe, together, tomato, tomorrow, tongue, too(x2), tool, tooth, top, touch, towel, tower, town, toy, trade, train, travel, tray, tree, treat, trial, trick, trigger, trip, troop, trouble, trousers, truth*, trust, try, turkey, turn, turtle, twist, 75

+

Tackle, to tame, tan, tangle, tapestry, to tease, tend, tense, tent, term, thigh, thistle, thorn, thread, threat*, threshold, thrill, thrive, thug, tick, tickle, tile, toad, toss, torch, track, trait, tramp, to translate, trap, trash, to tread, treat, treatise, to trek, trench, trend, trigger, trim, trout, truck, trump, trunk, truth, to tumble, tuna, tune, turnip, twig, tycoon, 50

 

 

U

Ugly, umbrella, uncle, under, understand, undertake, underwear, university, unless, until, unwind, upset, update, use, 14

+
Ufo, unabated, to undergo, underneath, to unwind, to upgrade, upright, upside, utmost, utter, 10

 

 

V
Vaccine, vain, valley, van, vast, veal, vegetable, vein, velvet, very, view, village, voice, volunteer, vow, vowel, 16

+
Vantage, to vanish, vassal, veil, vendee, venison, venom, vent, venture, venue, verge, vessel, viceroy, vixen, vulture, 15

 

W

Waist, wait, wake, walk, wall, wallet, walnut, want, war*, warm, warn, wash, wasp, waste, watch(x2), water, wave, wax, way, weak, week, wealth, weapon, wear, weather, web, wedding, weight, welcome, well(x2) wet, whale, wheat, wheel, while, white, whole, wide, widow, wife, wild, will(x2), win, wind, wine, wing, window, wise*, wish, with/without, witness, wolf, woman, wonder(x2), wood, wool, word, work, world, worry, wound, write, wrist, wrong, 65

+
Wad, wage, walrus, waltz, wan, wand, ward, warren, weasel, to weave, wedge, weed, to weep, welfare, weird, whey, whig, whim, to whine, whip, whirl, whisker, whisper, withdraw, wield, wig, willing, willow, wink, wipe, wit, witch, wizard, womb, worm, worship, worth, to wrap, wrath, wreck, wrench, wrestle, to wring, wrinkle, wrist, 45

 

Y
Yard, yacht, yawn, year, yellow, yesterday, yet, yield, yoghurt, yolk, youth, yummy, 12

+
Yarn, yearling, to yearn, yeast, yelling, yelp, 5

 

 

Z
Zap (to), Zebra, Zealot*, Zero, Zest, Zigzag, Zip, Zoom, 8

 

Total words : 2.000

 

 



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